Obviously, one great way to defend criminal charges is to attack the evidence; this is most often done via a motion for suppression. A motion to suppress physical evidence seeks to prevent the prosecution from using certain physical evidence at trial. A motion to suppress is based on the assertion that the evidence was not legally recovered and therefore cannot be used as proof to support criminal charges.
The first question to ask when considering a motion to suppress is whether or not a warrant was issued for the search; more often than not no warrant is issued for a search of a vehicle during a traffic stop. Vehicles are effects within the meaning of the Fourth Amendment provision guaranteeing the right of people to be secure in their effects against unreasonable searches, and automobile stops constitute seizures for Fourth Amendment purposes. People v. Abad, 98 N.Y.2d 12, 16 (N.Y. 2002). Further, not only a driver, but a passenger as well has the right to challenge the stop and search of the automobile as well as to challenge any evidence recovered there from. People v. Fore, 131 A.D.2d 329, 330 (1st Dep’t 1987).